Interesanti

Hernana Kortesa biogrāfija - vēsture

Hernana Kortesa biogrāfija - vēsture


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Ernans Kortess dzimis Spānijā, Medelīnā, 1485. gadā. Viņa tēvs bija kājnieku virsnieks. Kortess tika raksturots kā bāli slims bērns. 14 gadu vecumā viņš tika nosūtīts studēt uz Salamankas universitāti. Pēc diviem gadiem Kortess atgriezās mājās. Pēc atgriešanās mājās 16 gadu vecumā Kortess bija nemierīgs. 1503. gadā 18 gadu vecumā Kortess aizbrauca no Spānijas uz Jauno pasauli. Viņš ieradās Hispaniolas galvaspilsētā Santo Domingo. Tur viņš reģistrējās kā pilsonis. Gubernators, kurš bija ģimenes draugs, padarīja viņu par Azuzas pilsētas notāru. Kortess pavadīja Djego Velazkesu ekspedīcijā, lai iekarotu Kubu. Ekspedīcijā Kortess izcēlās un kļuva par Santjago mēru. Kortess, tāpat kā daudzi spāņi, bija dzirdējis baumas par milzīgu zelta daudzumu Meksikas kontinentālajā daļā. 1518. gadā Kortess pārliecināja gubernatoru dot viņam hartu Meksikas izpētei un iekarošanai. Gubernators pēdējā brīdī atsauca hartu, bet Kortess nolēma tomēr doties, kā dumpis.

Kortess nosēdināja savus karaspēkus pie Vera Krūzas. Viņš nodedzināja savus kuģus, apgalvojot, ka tie nav peldspējīgi, tādējādi novēršot iespēju, ka viņa karaspēks sacelsies un atgriezīsies. Kortess devās iekšzemē uz acteku galvaspilsētu ar ļoti mazu vairāku simtu karavīru armiju. Kortess ar savu nelielo spēku iebrauca Tenohtitlanas pilsētā, pilsētā ar vairāk nekā 200 000 iedzīvotāju. Tā vietā, lai cīnītos ar Kortesu, acteku karalis Montezuma sveica viņu ar dāvanām un sagaidīja. Pēc sešiem mēnešiem galvaspilsētā spāņi cīnījās, lai izkļūtu no galvaspilsētas. Citi acteki nogalināja Montezumu. Kortess saņēma palīdzību no maz ticama avota - spāņu spēkiem, kuri bija ieradušies viņu arestēt par nodevību. Viņš sakāva spēkus un pēc tam savā karaspēkā vervēja tā karavīrus. Kopā ar indiāņu acteku pretiniekiem Kortess aplenca Tenočtitlanu. Galu galā viņš iekaroja pilsētu. Viņš izpostīja un nodedzināja vienu no lielākajām pilsētām pasaulē.

Neskatoties uz viņa nodevību, turpinot savu kampaņu, Kortess kļuva ļoti populārs Spānijā, pateicoties viņa sagūstītajam zeltam un dārgakmeņiem. Kortess tika iecelts par gubernatoru tikko sagūstītajās teritorijās, kuras kļuva pazīstamas kā Jaunā Spānija. Kortess iznīcināja acteku ēkas un tempļus. Viņu vietā Kortess uzcēla spāņu ēkas. Pilsēta tika pārdēvēta par Mehiko. Drīz tā kļuva par vissvarīgāko Eiropas pilsētu Jaunajā pasaulē.

Kortess palika Jaunās Spānijas gubernators līdz 1841. gadam. Starpgadījumos dažādas amatpersonas, kas tika nosūtītas, lai palīdzētu Kortesam pārvaldīt jauno teritoriju, mazināja viņa paša varu. Turklāt pret Kortesu tika pastāvīgi apsūdzēti. Apsūdzības svārstījās no naudas nelietderīgas tērēšanas līdz pirmās sievas slepkavībai. Kortess paplašināja Spānijas kontroli pār visām mūsdienu Meksikas daļām, tostarp vadīja ekspedīciju uz Baja Kalifornijas pussalu.

1841. gadā Kortess atgriezās Spānijā. Viņš nomira Seviļā, 1547. gada 2. decembrī 62 gadu vecumā

.



Malinčes biogrāfija, verdzīgā sieviete un Hernāna Kortesa tulks

Malinali (ap 1500–1550), pazīstams arī kā Malintzín, "Doña Marina" un, visbiežāk, "Malinche", bija meksikāņu pamatiedzīvotāja, kura 1519. gadā tika nodota iekarotājam Ernānam Kortesam kā verdzenei. Malinche drīz pierādīja viņa bija ļoti noderīga Kortesam, jo ​​viņa varēja palīdzēt viņam interpretēt Nahuatl, varenās acteku impērijas valodu.

Malinche bija nenovērtējama vērtība Kortesam, jo ​​viņa ne tikai tulkoja, bet arī palīdzēja viņam izprast vietējo kultūru un politiku. Daudzi mūsdienu meksikāņi uzskata Malinču par lielisku nodevēju, kas nodeva savas vietējās kultūras asinskārajiem spāņu iebrucējiem.

Ātrie fakti: Malinche

  • Pazīstams: Meksikāņu paverdzinātā sieviete un tulks Ernānam Kortezam un viena viņa bērna mātei
  • Zināms arī kā: Marina, Malintzin, Malinche, Doña Marina, Mallinali
  • Dzimisc. 1500 Paulā, mūsdienu Meksikā
  • Vecāki: Cacaque of Paynala, māte nav zināma
  • Mirisc. 1550 Spānijā
  • Laulātais: Huans de Jaramiljo ir slavens arī ar attiecībām ar Ernanu Kortesu, slaveno konkistadoru
  • Bērni: Dons Martins, Doņa Marija

Jauns Kortess

Young Cortés portrets, 16. gadsimts, kas atrodas Museo de America, Madrid.

Ievads
Ar lielisku uguns spēku, 600 spāņiem, duci zirgu un tūkstošiem vietējo sabiedroto Hernāns Kortess iekaroja Meksiku Spānijas labā. Tas iezīmēja arī acteku impērijas krišanu. Viņa iekarošana ļāva Spānijai izveidot cietoksni un kolonijas Jaunajā pasaulē. Jau no mazotnes Kortess meklēja bagātību un piedzīvojumus. Vēsture viņu atceras kā sīvu konkistadoru (spāņu valodā - “iekarotājs”). Neskatoties uz savu reputāciju, viņš atvēra durvis turpmākai izpētei un iekarošanai uz dienvidiem un ziemeļiem

Biogrāfija
Agrīnā dzīve
Ernans (jeb Hernando) Kortess dzimis 1485. gadā Medeljinas ciematā, kas atrodas Spānijas Estremadura provincē. Viņa vecāki bija Martins Kortess de Monrojs un Katalīna Pizarro Altamirano. Kortess bija attāls pētnieks Fransisko Pizarro, kurš iekaroja Inku impēriju Peru. Kortesa ģimene bija cēla, bet ne ārkārtīgi bagāta. Būdams mazs bērns, Kortess bieži bija slims, bet viņa veselība uzlabojās, kad viņš bija pusaudzis. 1499. gadā 14 gadu vecumā viņš tika nosūtīts uz Salamankas universitāti, lai sagatavotos jurista karjerai. Tomēr Kortess galu galā apnika no studijām un pēc diviem gadiem pameta skolu un atgriezās mājās. Kortess vēlējās aktīvu dzīvi, un viņu aizrāva stāsti par zeltu un bagātībām Jaunajā pasaulē. Viņš pierakstījās ekspedīcijā uz Jauno pasauli, ko vadīja Nikolajs de Ovando, kurš bija Hispaniolas gubernators. Bet negadījums pēc kritiena, kas viņu apglabāja zem gruvešiem, smagi savainoja muguru. 1 Tātad viņš nevarēja kuģot kopā ar Ovando floti.

Sarunas par Jauno pasauli un bagātības vilinājumu turpināja valdzināt jaunos Kortesus. 1504. gadā viņš meklēja pāreju uz kuģa uz Santo Domingo, Hispaniola (mūsdienu Dominikānas Republika). Kortess sāka saimniekot Spānijas kolonijā, kas viņam atnesa daudz bagātības, un viņam piederēja vairāki vietējie vergi. Viņš beidzot ieguva savu pirmo izpētes garšu, kad 1511. gadā pievienojās misijai, kuru vadīja Dijē Velaskess. Kad viņš atgriezās, viņš apsolīja apprecēties ar sava drauga Huana Suaresa māsu Katalīnu Suaresu, bet pēdējā brīdī atkāpās. Velaskess, tagad Kubas gubernators, ieslodzīja Kortesu cietumā par solījuma nepildīšanu. 2 Galu galā Kortess piekrita apprecēties ar Katalīnu, taču Velāzkesa un Kortesa attiecības joprojām bija saspringtas. 1518. gadā viņš iecēla Kortesu vadīt ekspedīciju Meksikas iekarošanai. Pēc tam viņš atsauca pasūtījumu, jo viņam radās aizdomas par Kortesa spēcīgo gribu un varas slāpēm. Kortess nepaklausīja Velaskesam un 1519. gadā devās uz Meksiku, lai sāktu iebrukumu.

Reisi
Galvenais reiss
1519. gadā Ernans Kortess kopā ar aptuveni 600 vīriem atstāja Kubu un devās uz Jukatanas reģionu Meksikā. 3 Viņš vispirms ieradās Kozumeļā un sāka izpētīt kolonizācijas zemi. Viņš sastapa vietējos iedzīvotājus un viņu lielo piramīdu. Viņš pamanīja asins traipus un cilvēku mirstīgās atliekas, un uzzināja, ka šī piramīda tika izmantota cilvēku upurēšanai saviem dieviem. 4 Šausmās Kortess sāka centienus pārvērst pamatiedzīvotājus kristietībā. Viņš nojauca viņu elkus un aizstāja tos ar Jaunavas Marijas krustiem un statujām. Kortess paļāvās uz vietējiem tulkotājiem un ceļvežiem, lai sazinātos ar vietējiem iedzīvotājiem un ceļotu pa zemi. Drīz pēc tam Kortess un viņa vīri kuģoja tālāk un nolaidās Tabasko. Šeit Kortess un viņa vīri sadūrās ar vietējiem iedzīvotājiem. 1519. gada 25. martā Cintlas ielejā abas puses cīnījās kaujā, kas pazīstama kā Cintlas kauja. Vietējie iedzīvotāji neatbilda spāņu karavīru ieročiem un bruņām. Tika nogalināti 800 tabaskāni, bet tika nogalināti 2 spāņu vīrieši. 5 Tabaskāni apsolīja savu uzticību Spānijai un deva Kortesam zeltu un vergu sievietes.

Viens no priekšniekiem uzdāvināja Kortesai vergu, vārdā Malinche. Viņa bija bilingvāla, tāpēc runāja gan acteku, gan maiju valodā, kas padarīja viņu ļoti noderīgu Kortesam. Galu galā viņa iemācījās spāņu valodu un kļuva par Kortesa personīgo tulku, ceļvedi un saimnieci. Viņiem bija dēls vārdā Mārtins. Iekarojis Tabascan tautu, Kortess pārcēlās uz augšu pa krastu uz Tlaxcala, varenās acteku impērijas pilsētu. Acteki ne vienmēr bija populāri valdnieki starp viņu pakļautajām pilsētām. Kad Kortess to uzzināja, viņš to izmantoja savā labā. Viņš tikās ar acteku vēstniekiem un teica, ka vēlas satikt lielo acteku valdnieku Montezumu. Ksikotenga, Tlaxcala pilsētas valdnieks, Kortesā redzēja sabiedroto un iespēju gāzt galvaspilsētu Tenočtitlānu. Viņi izveidoja uzticību, un Kortesam tika doti vairāki tūkstoši karotāju, lai papildinātu viņa rindas. Līdz tam laikam Kortesa vīri sāka kurnēt par Kortesu. Viņš turpināja ignorēt Velázkesa rīkojumus atgriezties Kubā, un vīrieši uzskatīja, ka viņš pārkāpj savas pilnvaras. Baidoties, ka viņa vīri aizies, Kortess iznīcināja visus kuģus. 6 Tā kā vīriešiem nebija kur iet, viņi sekoja Kortesam līdz Tenočtitlānai.

Turpmākie reisi
Kortess un viņa vīri devās uz Tenočtitlānu. Acteku impērijas galvaspilsētu viņi sasniedza 1519. gada 8. novembrī. 7 Acteku civilizācijas valdnieks bija Montezuma II. Montezuma, kaut arī nebija pārliecināta par spāņu nodomu, laipni uzņēma viņus. Viņš deva viņiem ekskursiju pa savu pili, un viņiem tika dotas ekstravagantas dāvanas. Tas veicināja spāņu alkatību un drīz pēc tam attiecības kļuva naidīgas. Kortess sagūstīja Montezumu gūstā, un spāņi veica reidu pilsētā. Montezuma tika noslepkavots neilgi pēc tam, kad viņa tauta bija nomētā ar akmeņiem. 8 1520. gadā Spānijas karaspēks tika nosūtīts uz Meksiku, lai arestētu Kortesu par rīkojumu neievērošanu. Viņš atstāja Tenočtitlānu, lai stātos pretī spāņiem. Pēc to uzvarēšanas Kortess atgriezās acteku galvaspilsētā, lai atrastu notiekošo sacelšanos. Spāņi bija padzīti no pilsētas. Kortess reorganizēja savus vīrus un sabiedrotos un pārņēma kontroli pār galvaspilsētas kaimiņu teritorijām. Līdz 1521. gada augustam viņi atguva pilsētas kontroli. Tas iezīmēja acteku impērijas krišanu. Kortess bija pārņēmis Spānijas kontroli pār Meksiku. Kortess tika nosaukts par gubernatoru un turpināja izveidot Meksiku, kas tika uzcelta uz kritušās acteku galvaspilsētas drupām.

Vēlākie gadi un nāve
Vairākus gadus pēc Meksikas iekarošanas Kortess pārcieta daudzus izaicinājumus savam statusam un stāvoklim. Viņš bija iecelts par gubernatoru, tomēr tika atcelts no varas pēc atgriešanās no ceļojuma uz Hondurasu 1524. gadā. Kortess devās uz Spāniju, lai tiktos ar Spānijas karali, lai atgūtu savu titulu, taču nekad to neatguva. Pēc neveiksmes ar karali viņš atgriezās Meksikā un piedalījās vairākās ekspedīcijās visā Jaunajā pasaulē. Kortess pensionējās Spānijā 1540. gadā. Viņš nomira septiņus gadus vēlāk, 1547. gada 2. decembrī savās mājās Seviļā no plaušu slimības, ko sauc par pleirītu. 9

Mantojums
Ernans Kortess joprojām ir viens no veiksmīgākajiem spāņu konkistadoriem. Viņš bija varonis 16. gadsimtā, taču vēsture viņu atceras savādāk. Dzīves laikā viņam bija daudz uzvaru. Bet viņš, iespējams, ir visvairāk pazīstams ar savu acteku impērijas iekarošanu 1521. gadā. Viņš paverdzināja lielu daļu vietējo iedzīvotāju, un daudzi pamatiedzīvotāji tika iznīcināti no Eiropas slimībām, piemēram, bakām. Viņš bija gudrs, ambiciozs cilvēks, kurš vēlējās Spānijas kronai piešķirt jaunu zemi, pārvērst vietējos iedzīvotājus katolicismā un izlaupīt zemi par zeltu un bagātību. Tomēr mēs joprojām atzīstam viņa lomu vēsturē. Viņš palīdzēja pārraudzīt Meksikas pilsētas celtniecību, kas joprojām ir Meksikas galvaspilsēta. Viņš atvēra durvis turpmākai Centrālamerikas izpētei un iekarošanai uz dienvidiem, un galu galā noveda pie Kalifornijas iegādes uz ziemeļiem.


Hernāns Kortess

Spāņu karavīrs Ernans Kortess 1521. gadā iekaroja lielo acteku impēriju. Uzvara sākās 300 gadus pēc spāņu valdīšanas pār Meksiku.

Ernans Kortess (saukts arī par Hernando Kortesu) dzimis 1485. gadā Medeljinā, Spānijā. 19 gadu vecumā viņš kuģoja uz Hispaniola salu Rietumindijā. Tur viņš saimniekoja un strādāja juridisku darbu. 1511. gadā viņš palīdzēja Djego Velāzkesam iekarot Kubu. Kortess kļuva par galvaspilsētas Santjago mēru.

1518. gadā Velázkess lūdza Kortesu izveidot koloniju Meksikā. Izpētot piekrasti, Kortess uzzināja par acteku impēriju. Viņš nolaidās tagadējā Verakrusā 1519. gada aprīlī. Viņš nodedzināja savus kuģus, lai viņa vīri nevarētu atgriezties.

Pēc cīņas ar Tlaxcaltec cilvēku sakāvi Kortess padarīja viņus par saviem sabiedrotajiem. Tlaxcaltec un citas ciltis aizvainoja acteku prasības pēc upuriem un dārgumiem. 1519. gada 8. novembrī Kortess iegāja acteku galvaspilsētā Tenočtitlānā (tagad - Mehiko). Acteku imperators Montezuma II sveica Kortesu, jo uzskatīja, ka ir acteku leģendas dievs. Kortess ātri pārņēma varu.

Tikmēr greizsirdīgais Velāskess nosūtīja spāņu spēkus pret Kortesu. Kortess viņus uzvarēja, bet, kamēr viņš bija prom, acteki pārgrupējās. Viņi dzina viņa spēkus atpakaļ. Pēc tam Kortess atkal pievienojās Tlaxcaltec. Viņš sagūstīja Tenočtitlānu 1521. gada 13. augustā, izbeidzot acteku impēriju.

Spānijas karalis padarīja Kortesu par muižnieku. Kortess pavadīja 1530. gadus Meksikā un 1534. – 355. 1540. gadā viņš atgriezās Spānijā. Viņš tur nomira 1547. gada 2. decembrī.

Vai tu zināji?

Līdz 1521. gadam Ernans Kortess pārvaldīja milzīgu zemes platību no Karību jūras līdz Klusajam okeānam.


La Malinche

Viens no priekšniekiem deva Kortesam vergu, vārdā Malinche. Viņa bija bilingvāla, tāpēc runāja gan acteku, gan maiju valodā, kas padarīja viņu ļoti noderīgu Kortesam.

Beidzot viņš iemācījās spāņu valodu un kļuva par Kortesa personīgo tulku, gidu un mīļāko. Viņiem bija dēls vārdā Mārtins. Uzvarējis Tabasko tautu, Kortess pārcēlās uz Talakālas piekrasti

Kāds Tlaxcala pilsētas valdnieks Kortesā redzēja sabiedroto un iespēju gāzt galvaspilsētu Tenočtitlānu.

Viņi izveidoja aliansi, un Kortess saņēma vairākus tūkstošus karavīru, lai papildinātu viņu rindas. Līdz tam laikam Kortesa un#8217 vīrieši sāka sūdzēties par Kortesu.

Viņš turpināja ignorēt Velázkesa rīkojumus atgriezties Kubā, un vīrieši uzskatīja, ka viņš pārkāpj savas pilnvaras. Baidoties, ka viņa vīri aizies, Kortess iznīcināja visas laivas. Tā kā nebija kur iet, vīrieši sekoja Kortesam līdz Tenočtitlānam.

Ernans Kortess un Tenočtitlana krišana

Meksikas impērijas galvaspilsētas Tenočtitlana krišana notika sarunu ceļā starp vietējām frakcijām un esošajām anti-acteku nodaļām un Spānijas iekarotāju Ernu Kortesu.

Starp acteku armijām, no vienas puses, un spāņiem, no otras puses, notika daudzas cīņas, kuras lielākoties sastāvēja no pamatiedzīvotājiem, kuru pamatā bija alianse ar Cempoala, Texcoco un Tlaxcala kungiem.


Vēlāk dzīve un nāve

Lai gan gubernatora amats viņam tika atņemts, Kortesam Meksikā joprojām bija zināmas pilnvaras. Piemēram, viņš joprojām varēja uzsākt vairākas nelielas ekspedīcijas. Vienā no šādām ekspedīcijām viņš atklāja Baja Kalifornijas pussalu 1536. gadā.

Tā kā viņam tika atņemta pilsoniskā autoritāte, Kortesa ietekme Jaunajā pasaulē samazinājās. 1541. gadā viņš atgriezās Spānijā, lai risinātu dažas problēmas saistībā ar viņa īpašumiem.

Ernans Kortess ekspedīcijās Amerikā un Meksikas iekarošanā iztērēja bagātību. Viņš izmisīgi centās atgūt lielāko daļu iztērētās naudas no Spānijas kronas, taču nesekmīgi.

Vēlākos gadus viņš pavadīja ne tik turīgi kā agrāk, būdams Meksikas gubernators. Jūtoties atstāts novārtā Spānijā, viņš nolēma vēlreiz izmēģināt Meksiku. Tomēr, gatavojoties viņam, viņu piemeklēja dizentērija. 1547. gada 2. decembrī Seviļas provinces Kastīlijā de la Kuestā nomira slavenais spāņu iekarotājs Meksika. Viņam bija 62 gadi.

Pirms viņš beidzot tika apglabāts Jēzus slimnīcā Meksikā, viņa ķermenis tika pārvietots apmēram astoņas reizes.


Saturs

Malinche ir pazīstams ar daudziem vārdiem. [5] [6] Viņa tika kristīta kā Marina [7] [8], un spāņi par to atsaucās, bieži vien ar godu doña. [9] [10] Nahuas viņu sauca par “Malintzin”, kas cēlies no “Malina” (viņas spāņu vārda atveidojums no Nahuatl) un goda sufiksu -zin. [11] Saskaņā ar vēsturnieces Kamillas Taunsendas teikto, vokatīvais piedēklis -e dažreiz tiek pievienots nosaukuma beigās, dodot formu Malintzīns, kas tiktu saīsināts līdz “Malintze”, un spāņi to dzirdētu kā “Malinche”. [11] [a] Vēl viena iespēja ir tāda, ka spāņi vienkārši nedzirdēja “čukstus” -n no nosaukuma Malintzin. [13]

Viņas vārds dzimšanas brīdī nav zināms. [7] [14] [15] Tautā tiek pieņemts, ka vismaz kopš 19. gadsimta [16] sākotnēji viņu sauca par “Malinalli” [b] (Nahuatl - “zāle”) pēc tās dienas zīmes, kurā viņa bija. domājams, dzimis [19] un ka Marina tika izvēlēta par viņas kristīgo vārdu fonētiskās līdzības dēļ [17], taču mūsdienu vēsturnieki ir noraidījuši šos apgalvojumus. [7] [16] Nahuas dienas zīmi „Malinalli” saista ar sliktām vai pat „ļaunām” konotacijām, [7] [19] [20] un ir zināms, ka viņi izvairās izmantot tādas dienas zīmes kā personvārdus. [7] [21] Turklāt spāņiem būtu maz iemesla jautāt pamatiedzīvotājiem, kāds ir viņu personvārds, pirms kristīt viņus ar līdzīgi skanīgiem spāņu vārdiem. [22]

Vēl viens nosaukums, kas bieži tiek uzskatīts par daļu no viņas sākotnējā vārda, ir “Tenepal”. Anotācijā, ko Nahua vēsturnieks Čimalpahins veica savā Gómara Kortesa biogrāfijas eksemplārā, “Malintzin Tenepal” tiek atkārtoti izmantots, atsaucoties uz Malinche. [16] [23] Pēc valodnieka un vēsturnieka Franča Karttunena teiktā, Tenepalu, iespējams, atvasina no Nahuatl saknes tene kas nozīmē “lūpu īpašnieks, enerģiski runājošs” [14] vai “tas, kuram ir iespējas ar vārdiem” [24] un postpozīcija -palīgs, kas nozīmē “izmantojot”. [14] Tomēr vēsturnieks Džeimss Lokharts liek domāt, ka Tenepalu varētu atvasināt no tenenepil vai "kāda mēle". [25] Katrā ziņā šķiet, ka “Malintzin Tenepal” bija domāts kā spāņu valoda doña Marina la lengua, [13] [25] ar la lengua ("tulks", burtiski "mēle" [26]) ir viņas spāņu valodas brigāde. [16]

Fona rediģēšana

Malinčes dzimšanas datums nav zināms, [17] taču tiek lēsts, ka tas ir aptuveni 1500 un, iespējams, ne vēlāk kā 1505. gadā. [27] [28] [c] Viņa dzimusi altepetl tā bija Mezoamerikas valsts daļa vai pieteka, kuras centrs atradās Coatzacoalcos upes krastā uz austrumiem no acteku impērijas. [29] [d] Ieraksti nepiekrīt precīzajam nosaukumam altepetl kur viņa piedzima. [33] [34] Trīs nesaistītās tiesvedībās, kas notika neilgi pēc viņas nāves, dažādi liecinieki, kas apgalvoja, ka pazina viņu personīgi, tostarp viņas meita, teica, ka viņa dzimusi Olutlā. The probanza viņas mazdēls arī minēja Olutlu kā savu dzimšanas vietu. [33] Viņas meita arī piebilda, ka altepetl Olutla bija saistīts ar Tetiquipaque, lai gan šo attiecību raksturs nav skaidrs. [35] Florences kodekss, Malinche dzimtene tiek minēta kā "Teticpac", kas, visticamāk, ir Tetiquipaque vienskaitļa forma. [36] Gómara raksta, ka viņa nākusi no "Uilutas" (domājams, variants Olutla), lai gan viņš atkāpjas no citiem avotiem, rakstot, ka tas bija Džalisko reģionā. Savukārt Díaz par savu dzimšanas vietu norāda "Painalla". [37] [33]

Tiek ziņots, ka viņas ģimenei ir cēla izcelsme [37] Gómara raksta, ka viņas tēvs bija saistīts ar vietējo valdnieku [38], savukārt Díaz stāsta, ka viņas vecāki paši bijuši valdnieki. [39] Taunsends atzīmē, ka, lai gan tobrīd Olutlā, iespējams, bija Popolukas vairākums, valdošā elite, kurai it kā piederēja Malinče, būtu runājusi nahuatli. [40] Vēl viens mājiens, kas atbalsta viņas cēlu izcelsmi, ir viņas šķietamā spēja saprast galma valodu tecpillahtolli (“Kundzīga runa”), Nahuatl reģistrs, kas būtiski atšķiras no parastā cilvēka runas un ir jāapgūst. [41] [42] Fakts, ka viņa bieži tika dēvēta par doña, laikā, kad tas netika plaši izmantots pat Spānijā, norāda arī uz to, ka viņa tika uzskatīta par muižnieci [18], lai gan ir arī iespējams, ka gods viņai tika piešķirts, ņemot vērā viņas nozīmīgo lomu iekarošanā. [15]

Iespējams, vecumā no 8 līdz 12 gadiem [43] Malinche tika pārdots vai nolaupīts verdzībā. [13] [44] Díaz lieliski rakstīja, ka pēc tēva nāves viņu māte un patēvs atdeva tirgotājiem, lai viņu dēls (Malinčes brālis) varētu gūt panākumus kā mantinieks. [45] [46] Zinātnieki, vēsturnieki un literatūras kritiķi ir apšaubījuši Dijaza stāstu par viņas izcelsmi, lielā mērā tāpēc, ka viņa stāstījumā par notikumiem viņš ir ļoti uzsvēris katolicismu. [18] [45] [47] Jo īpaši vēsturniece Sonia Rose de Fuggle analizē Dijaza pārmērīgo paļaušanos uz polisindetonu (kas atdarina virkni Bībeles stāstu teikumu struktūru), kā arī viņa visaptverošo attēlojumu par Malinche kā ideālu kristieti. . [48] ​​Neskatoties uz to, Taunsenda uzskata, ka daži no viņas cilvēkiem, iespējams, ir piedalījušies viņas tirdzniecībā neatkarīgi no iemesla. [43] Malinče tika nogādāta Ksikalango [49], kas ir lielākā reģiona ostas pilsēta. [50] Vēlāk viņu iegādājās Chontal Maya grupa, kas viņu atveda uz Potončānas pilsētu. Tieši šeit Malinche sāka mācīties Chontal Maya valodu, un varbūt arī Yucatec Maya. [51] [e] Tas vēlāk ļautu viņai sazināties ar Jerónimo de Aguilar, citu Kortesa tulku, kurš līdzās dzimtajai spāņu valodai runāja arī Yucatec Maya. [54]

Meksikas iekarošana Rediģēt

- Ziņojums no sūtņiem Moctezumai. Florences kodekss, XII grāmata, IX nodaļa [55]

Ekspedīcijas sākumā uz Meksiku Kortess Potončānā saskārās ar maijiem. [39] Turpmākajā kaujā maiji cieta ievērojamus dzīvību zaudējumus un lūdza mieru. Nākamajās dienās viņi pasniedza spāņiem dāvanas ar pārtiku un zeltu, kā arī divdesmit paverdzinātas sievietes, tostarp Malinche. [56] [57] Sievietes tika kristītas un sadalītas starp Kortesa vīriešiem ne tikai kā kalpotājas, bet arī izvarotas. [58] [54] [59] Malinche tika piešķirts Alonso Ernandesam Puertokarrero, vienam no Kortesa kapteiņiem [54], kurš bija arī Kortesa dzimtās pilsētas Medeljinas grāfa pirmais brālēns. [60]

Malinčes lingvistiskā dāvana tika atklāta [61], kad spāņi Sanhuanā de Ulū satika nahuatl runājošos cilvēkus. [54] [62] Moctezuma sūtņi bija ieradušies tos pārbaudīt, [63] taču Agilera tos nespēja saprast. [62] [64] Kad saprata, ka Malinche var sarunāties ar sūtņiem (pēc Gómara domām), Kortess viņai apsolīja “vairāk nekā brīvību”, ja viņa palīdzēs viņam atrast un sazināties ar Moctezumu. [37] [62] Kortess paņēma Malinču atpakaļ no Puertokarrero [54], kurai vēlāk tika nosūtīta cita pamatiedzīvotāja, pirms viņš tika nosūtīts atpakaļ uz Spāniju. [65] [66] Ar Agilera un Malinčes starpniecību Kortess runāja ar Močezumas sūtņiem. Sūtņi arī atveda māksliniekus, lai tie izgatavotu gleznas par Malinche, Cortés un pārējo grupu, kā arī viņu kuģus un ieročus, lai tos nosūtītu Moctezuma ierakstiem. [67] [68] Díaz vēlāk teica, ka Nahuas arī uzrunāja Kortesu kā "Malinche" [69] [54], acīmredzot viņi uzskatīja viņu par atskaites punktu grupai. [70] [f]

Kopš tā laika Malinche sadarbosies ar Aguilar, lai veidotu saziņu starp spāņiem un Nahuas [34] [67] Kortess runātu spāniski ar Aguilar, kurš Malinkē tulkoja Yucatec Maya, kurš savukārt tulkoja Nahuatl, pirms procesa maiņas . [73] Tulkošanas ķēde kļuva vēl garāka, kad pēc sūtņu aiziešanas viņi tikās ar totonakiem [74], kuru valodu nesaprata ne Malinche, ne Aguilar. Tur Malinche lūdza Nahuatl tulkus. [75] [76] Karttunens atzīmē, ka "ir brīnums, ka jebkāda komunikācija vispār tika panākta", jo Kortesa spāņu vārdi bija jāpārvērš maijā, nahuatlā un totonakā, pirms tie sasniedza vietējos iedzīvotājus, kuru atbildes pēc tam atkārtojās ķēde. [75] Tieši no tikšanās ar totonakiem spāņi vispirms uzzināja par tiem, kuri bija naidīgi pret Moctezumu. [76] [74] Pēc tam, kad tika dibināta Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz pilsēta, lai atbrīvotos no juridiskā ierobežojuma, kas bija paredzēts izzinošai misijai, [77] spāņi divus mēnešus palika tuvējā Totonacas apmetnē. , noslēdzot formālu aliansi ar totonakiem un sagatavojoties gājienam pret Tenočtitlanu. [78] [79]

Pirmā lielākā politika, ar kuru viņi saskārās ceļā uz Tenočtitlanu, bija Tlakskala. [80] Lai gan Tlaxcalans sākotnēji bija naidīgi noskaņots pret spāņiem un viņu sabiedrotajiem, [81] vēlāk viņi atļāva spāņiem ienākt pilsētā. [82] [83] Tlaxcalans sarunāja aliansi ar spāņiem caur Malinche un Aguilar. Vēlākajos šīs tikšanās Tlaxcalan ierakstos ir redzamas ainas, kurās Malinche šķiet ievērojama, veidojot saziņu starp abām pusēm, jo ​​Tlaxcalans pasniedza spānietēm pārtikas dāvanas un augstmanes, lai nostiprinātu aliansi. [69] [84] Pēc vairākām Tlakskalā pavadītām dienām Kortess turpināja ceļu uz Tenočtitlanu pa Cholula ceļu, ko pavadīja liels skaits Tlaxcalan karavīru. [69] [85]

Spāņi tika uzņemti Čolulā un izmitināti vairākas dienas, līdz, kā apgalvoja spāņi, čolulāni pārtrauca dot viņiem ēdienu, izraka slepenas bedres, uzcēla barikādi ap pilsētu un slēpa lielu acteku armiju nomalē, gatavojoties uzbrukums spāņiem. [86] [69] Kaut kā spāņi uzzināja par šo sižetu un, veicot preventīvu triecienu, pulcēja un slepkavoja čolulānus. [87] Vēlākos pārskatos tika īpaši apgalvots, ka zemes gabalu atklāja Malinche. Saskaņā ar Díaz sniegto versiju, pie viņas vērsās kāda Cholulan muižniece, kura apsolīja viņai laulību ar sievietes dēlu, ja viņa mainīsies. Malinche, izliekoties, ka piekrīt ieteikumam, uzzināja no sievietes par sižetu un ziņoja Kortesam par visām detaļām. [88] [89] Šis stāsts bieži tiek minēts kā piemērs Malinčes “nodevībai” pret savu tautu. [13] Tomēr stāsta patiesumu ir atspēkojuši tādi mūsdienu vēsturnieki kā Hasigs un Taunsends. [89] [90] Jo īpaši Hassigs ierosina, ka Kortess, meklējot spēcīgākas vietējās alianses, kas noveda pie Tenočtitlana iebrukuma, sadarbojās ar slaktiņiem, lai koordinētu slaktiņu. Čolula pirms viena vai diviem gadiem pirms pievienošanās acteku impērijai bija atbalstījusi Tlakskalu, un zaudēt viņus kā sabiedroto bija smagi skāris Tlaxcalans, kuru štatu tagad pilnībā apņēma acteki. [91] [90] [92] Hassigs un citi vēsturnieki apgalvo, ka uzbrukums Čolulāniem bija "lakmusa papīrs" no spāņu uzticamības. [93] [92] Patiesībā Malinčes "varonīgais" atklājums par iespējamo sižetu, iespējams, bija izdomāts stāsts, kura mērķis bija sniegt lielāku politisko pamatojumu Spānijas varas iestādēm, kuras nebija piedalījušās slaktiņā. [89]

Apvienotie spēki sasniedza Tenočtitlanu 1519. gada novembra sākumā, un Moctezuma viņu sagaidīja ceļā, kas ved uz pilsētu. [94] Malinče bija šī notikuma vidū, tulkojot Kortesa un Močezumas sarunu. [44] [95] Gomara raksta, ka Moctezuma "runāja caur Malinche un Aguilar", lai gan citi ieraksti liecina, ka Malinche jau tulkoja tieši [44], jo viņa pati ātri bija iemācījusies spāņu valodu. [54] [96] Močezumas ziedošo runu, kas tika pasniegta ar Malinčes starpniecību sanāksmē, spāņi apgalvoja, ka tas ir iesniegums, taču mūsdienu vēsturnieki neievēro šo interpretāciju. [42] [95] Runas deferenciālais raksturs izskaidrojams ar Moctezuma lietojumu tecpillahtolli, Nahuatl reģistrs, kas pazīstams ar savu netiešību un sarežģīto godbijīgo piedēkļu kopumu. [42] [97] Neskatoties uz šķietamo Malinčes spēju saprast tecpillahtolli, iespējams, ka tulkojumā tika zaudētas dažas nianses [42], un spāņi, apzināti vai nē, varēja nepareizi interpretēt Moctezuma faktiskos vārdus. [95]

Pēc Tenočtitlāna krišanas 1521. gada beigās un dēla Martīna Kortesa piedzimšanas 1522. gadā Marina palika mājā Kortesa, kas viņai uzbūvēta Kojoakanas pilsētā, astoņas jūdzes uz dienvidiem no Tenektitlānas, acteku galvaspilsētas, kamēr tā tika pārbūvēta. kā Mehiko. Kortess aizveda Marinu, lai 1524. – 1526. gadā apspiestu sacelšanos Hondurasā, kad viņa atkal tiek uzskatīta par tulku (kas liecina par maiju dialektu zināšanām ārpus Chontal un Yucatán). Atrodoties kalnu pilsētā Orizabā Meksikas centrā, viņa apprecējās ar spāņu hidalgo Huanu Jaramillo. [98] Daži mūsdienu zinātnieki ir aprēķinājuši, ka viņa nomira nepilnu desmit gadu laikā pēc Meksikas-Tenohtitlanas iekarošanas kādā brīdī pirms 1529. gada februāra. [99] [100] Viņai palika dēls Dons Martins, kuru galvenokārt audzinātu viņa tēva ģimene un meita Doña María, kuru audzinās Jaramillo un viņa otrā sieva Doña Beatriz de Andrada. [101] Lai gan Martins bija Kortesa pirmdzimtais dēls un iespējamais mantinieks, viņa attiecības ar Marinu slikti dokumentēja tādi izcili spāņu vēsturnieki kā Fransisko Lopess de Gomāra, kurš nekad nav atsaucies uz Marinu vārdā, pat savā darbā kā Kortesa tulkotājs. [102] Pat Marinas dzīves laikā viņa pavadīja maz laika kopā ar Martīnu, bet viņas bērns kopā ar Kortesu iezīmēja simbolisku mestizo populācijas sākumu Mesoamerikā starp daudziem zinātniekiem un vēsturniekiem pēc viņas nāves. [103]

Loma Meksikas iekarošanā Rediģēt

Konkistadoram uzticama tulka klātbūtne bija pietiekami svarīga, taču ir pierādījumi, ka Marinas loma un ietekme joprojām bija lielāka. Bernal Díaz del Castillo, karavīrs, kurš kā vecs vīrs sagatavoja visplašāko no aculiecinieku stāstiem, Vēsturiskā Vēsturiskā de Nueva España uzvarētāja ("Patiess stāsts par Jaunās Spānijas iekarošanu"), atkārtoti un godbijīgi runā par "diženo dāmu" Dona Marinu (vienmēr izmantojot goda nosaukumu Doña). "Bez Doñas Marinas palīdzības", viņš raksta, "mēs nebūtu sapratuši Jaunās Spānijas un Meksikas valodu." Cits konkistadors Rodrigess de Okana stāsta par Kortesa apgalvojumu, ka pēc Dieva Marina bija viņa panākumu galvenais iemesls.

Vietējo avotu liecības ir vēl interesantākas gan komentāros par viņas lomu, gan viņas pamanāmībā iekarošanas notikumu kodeku zīmējumos. Lai gan dažu Marinu var dēvēt par nodevēju, viņu neuzskatīja par visu Tlaxcalan. Dažos attēlojumos viņi attēloja viņu kā “lielāku par dzīvību” [104], dažkārt lielāku par Kortesu, bagātīgā apģērbā, un starp viņu un splaciešiem tiek parādīta alianse. Viņi cienīja un uzticējās viņai un attēloja viņu šajā gaišajās paaudzēs pēc spāņu iekarošanas. [104]

Iekš Lienzo de Tlaxcala (Tlaxcala vēsture)piemēram, Kortess ne tikai reti tiek attēlots bez Marinas līdzās, bet reizēm viņa tiek parādīta patstāvīgi, šķietami vadot notikumus kā neatkarīga autoritāte. If she had been trained for court life, as in Díaz's account, her relationship to Cortés may have followed the familiar pattern of marriage among native elite classes. The role of the Nahua wife acquired through an alliance would have been to assist her husband achieve his military and diplomatic objectives. [105] [106]

Today's historians give great credit to Marina's diplomatic skills, with some "almost tempted to think of her as the real conqueror of Mexico." [107] In fact, old conquistadors on various occasions would remember that one of her greatest skills had been her ability to convince other Indians of what she herself could see clearly, which was that it was useless in the long run to stand against Spanish metal and Spanish ships. In contrast with earlier parts of Díaz del Castillo's account, after Marina's diplomacy began assisting Cortés, the Spanish were forced into combat on one more occasion. [108]

Had La Malinche not been part of the Conquest of Mexico for her linguistic gift, communication between the Spanish and the Indigenous would have been much harder. La Malinche knew to speak in different registers and tones between certain Indigenous tribes and people. For the Nahua audiences, she spoke rhetorically, formally, and high-handedly. This shift into formality gave the Nahua the impression that she was a noblewoman who knew what she was talking about. [109]

Malinche's image has become a mythical archetype that Hispanic American artists have represented in various forms of art. Her figure permeates historical, cultural, and social dimensions of Hispanic American cultures. [110] In modern times and in several genres, she is compared with the La Llorona (folklore story of the woman weeping for lost children), and the Mexican soldaderas (women who fought beside men during the Mexican Revolution) [111] for their brave actions.

La Malinche's legacy is one of myth mixed with legend, and the opposing opinions of the Mexican people about the legendary woman. Some see her as a founding figure of the Mexican nation, while others continue to see her as a traitor—as may be assumed from a legend that she had a twin sister who went North, and from the pejorative nickname La Chingada associated with her twin. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

Feminist interventions into the figure of Malinche began in 1960s. The work of Rosario Castellanos was particularly significant Chicanas began to refer to her as a "mother" as they adopted her as symbolism for duality and complex identity. [112] Castellanos's subsequent poem "La Mallinche" recast her not as a traitor but as a victim. [113] Mexican feminists defended Malinche as a woman caught between cultures, forced to make complex decisions, who ultimately served as a mother of a new race. [114]

Today in Mexican Spanish, the words malinchismo un malinchista are used to denounce Mexicans who are perceived as denying their own cultural heritage by preferring foreign cultural expressions. [115]

Some historians believe that La Malinche saved her people from the Aztecs, who held a hegemony throughout the territory and demanded tribute from its inhabitants. Some Mexicans also credit her with having brought Christianity to the New World from Europe, and for having influenced Cortés to be more humane than he would otherwise have been. It is argued, however, that without her help, Cortés would not have been successful in conquering the Aztecs as quickly, giving the Aztec people enough time to adapt to new technology and methods of warfare. From that viewpoint, she is seen as one who betrayed the Indigenous people by siding with the Spaniards. Recently a number of feminist Latinas have decried such a categorization as scapegoating. [116]

President José López Portillo commissioned a sculpture of Cortés, Doña Marina, and their son Martín, which was placed in front of Cortés' house in the Coyoacan section of Mexico City. Once López Portillo left office, the sculpture was removed to an obscure park in the capital. [117]


A Killing Spree on the Way to Tenochtitlán

In the fall of 1518, he set off for Mexico on his own expedition with 600 soldiers and sailors and 16 horses on 11 ships. They landed on the Mexican coast in early 1519 at Tabasco on the Yucatan Peninsula, where he and his army defeated a group of natives. While there, Cortez managed to gain favor among other natives, and he fathered a son with a native woman named Marina, who also served as an interpreter. Cortez next conquered the city of Veracruz. It was at Veracruz where he began making plans to visit Montezuma and the Aztec Empire despite orders from Spain to cancel further explorations. On the way to the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán, Cortez allied with several tribes that were enemies of the Aztecs and massacred others, possibly to instill fear among the Aztecs.


Hernan Cortes Biography

Hernan Cortes was a Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztec Empire and claimed Mexico for Spain. Cortes was a pioneer for claiming lands in the Americas for European powers. After Cortes, other Spanish conquistador’s followed in his footsteps, such as Pizzaro who conquered the Inca Empire. Cortes is a controversial figure for his invasion and conquest of the Aztec Empire, but undoubtedly had tremendous influence in claiming Mexico for the Spanish monarchy – bringing Christianity and European culture to the Americas.

Cortes was born in Medellin, Spain, in 1485. His father was an army captain – of the lesser nobility, but poor. Cortes was sent away to be educated – hopefully, to be a lawyer. However restless with studying and life in small-town Spain, Cortes wished to travel to the Americas. He would undoubtedly have heard about the expedition of Christopher Columbus to the Americas. This journey created a wave of excitement about the possibilities of discovering wealth and power in the new lands to the west, and Cortes wished to be at the forefront of this new era.

“We Spaniards know a sickness of the heart that only gold can cure.”

Cortes was ambitious and was often considered haughty and proud by his contemporaries. Restless for adventure, in 1504, he travelled to Hispaniola (modern-day Haiti/Dominican Republic) to become a colonist. He took part in the conquest of Hispaniola and Cuba, which gave him a reward of land and Indian slaves. He also became clerk to the treasurer, where his administration and political skills brought him to the attention of the governor of New Spain, Diego Velazquez.

When news reached Hispaniola of untold riches on lands to the west, Velazquez allowed Cortes to mount an expedition to the mainland of Mexico. In 1519, with great enthusiasm and meticulous planning, Cortes assembled a fleet of six ships and 300 men and set sail within a month. However, Velazquez quickly resented Cortes’ growing ambition and influence, and Velazquez tried to recall him. But, fearing such an eventuality, Cortes had already set sail to Mexico.

His men disembarked on the coast near the city of Veracruz, where he gathered information about the great wealth which lay in the capital. Cortes had tremendous determination to march inland and conquer the Aztec Empire. Despite having only 300 men who were lightly armed, (about 13 handguns, 4 light cannons and 16 horses) Cortes was confident – feeling, like many conquistadors, they were doing the ‘work of God’ and under the banner of the Cross, they could not be defeated. However, facing overwhelming odds, not all his men felt the same and there was a reluctance to join Cortes on this seemingly impossible task with the odds stacked against the Spanish. However, Cortes wasn’t returning without success – so he had his own ships destroyed forcing his men to follow him into the interior of Mexico. There was no turning back.

Before reaching the capital, the Spanish faced fierce resistance from a tribe of Indians known as the Tlaxcalans. However, Cortes’ troops prevailed and he successfully encouraged them to join him in fighting the Aztecs (who the Tlaxacalans also hated). By October 1519, Cortes and his Indian allies arrived in Cholula, the second largest city and on route to the capital.

The king of the Aztecs was Montezuma II. He was all-powerful amongst his people, but it seems he feared the power of the white man from overseas. The description of Cortes matched a legend from Aztec legends about a God – Quetzalcoatl who was promised to one day return to the Aztecs.

Before Montezuma could attack the Spanish, Cortes sprung a surprise attack in Cholula, where many thousands of unarmed Indian nobles were massacred. This massacre filled the Aztecs with fear over the power of the invading force. By November, Cortes had accumulated a large army of Indian allies and were able to enter the capital, Tenochtitlán. Montezuma chose not to fight the Spanish. Instead, he invited them into the city and lavished them with wealth and gold. He hoped to attack them later when their defences were down.

But, the gifts of wealth only increased the ambition of the Spanish and Cortes had Montezuma arrested and put under house arrest. Cortes established Montezuma as a puppet ruler, and the Aztec capital effectively came under his control. Despite gaining Indian allies, it was still a stunning military victory by Cortes – given the imbalance in military forces.

The main challenge to Cortez – came not from the Aztecs – but another Spanish force, headed by Narvaez, which had been sent to Mexico with orders to arrest Cortez. Cortez returned to the coast and defeated this force.

Cortez then had to deal with an uprising in Tenochtitlan. The native population had rebelled against the ruler that Cortez had left in his stead. With additional Spanish troops Cortez was able to defeat the uprising and secure the important strategic town. Over the next few years, the Spanish succeeded in consolidating their power and established permanent colonies. The old Aztec capital was rebuilt as New Mexico and became the capital for Spanish-Mexico.

As well as seeking personal wealth and power, Cortes also felt the duty of a missionary Christian. During the conquest, he frequently tried to convert the natives to Christianity. Sometimes he was successful. He also asked the king to send mendicant friars to work as evangelists in the new lands. He feared that many Spanish priests would harm the religion because of their reputation for indulging in vices. The King agreed to send twelve Franciscan monks. The Franciscans became known as the 12 Apostles of Mexico and there was a strong alliance between Cortes and the Franciscans.

In a letter to Emperor Charles V, Cortes explains his evangelical fervour of this mission.

“I charged and enjoined much on the Spaniards to observe and comply with the orders I should give them in conducting the war with as great strictness as possible and that they should take fresh courage and spirits, since they saw that our lord was leading us to victory over our enemies for they knew that when we entered Tezcuco, we had not brought more than forty horse[s], and that God had succored us beyond our expectations, ships having arrived with horses, men, and arms, as they had seen and that they should consider especially, that we were fighting in behalf and for the spread of our faith, and to reduce to your Majesty’s service the lands and provinces that had rebelled a consideration which should inspire them with courage and zeal to conquer or die.” (Source)

For his capture of Mexico, Cortes was rewarded with lands and wealth. However, his haughty attitude and disobedience to the king’s commands meant he later was removed as governor of Mexico. This hurt the pride of Cortes because he felt that by rights, he deserved to rule the land he had conquered for the king. In 1541, he returned to Spain to petition the king to restore his position as ruler of New Mexico. However, the appeals were largely ignored, and Cortes spent the remaining years of his life in Spain. Despite the riches he gained in Mexico, the adventures had also cost him money. But he was mainly unhappy to be stripped of the power and prestige he felt he deserved. In his later letters, Cortes conveyed a feeling of betrayal, ingratitude and resentment at the way he was treated.

Cortes married twice. His first wife Catalina Súarez was a close relative of Velaquez. This was possibly to curry favour with Velaquez, but when they became politically estranged the marriage became awkward – especially because it was childless. In 1522, his first wife, Catalina died in mysterious circumstances. In 1529, he remarried the Spanish noblewoman – Doña Juana de Zúñiga. They had three children. Cortes also had illegitimate children with native Indians.

Letters of Hernan Cortes

The letters of Hernan Cortes to Emperor Charles V give an insight into Cortes’ mission. Obviously they are trying to portray his mission in the best possible light.

“Although they were subjects of Moctezuma, yet according to the information I received, they had been reduced to that condition by force, within a short period and when they had obtained through me some knowledge of your Highness, and of your great regal power, they declared their desire to become vassals of your Majesty, and to form an alliance with me. They also begged me to protect them against that mighty Lord, who used violent and tyrannical measures to keep them in subjection, and took from them their sons to be slain and offered as sacrifices to his idols with many other complaints against him, in order to avoid whose tyranny they embraced the service of your Majesty, to which they have so far proved faithful, and I doubt not will continue so, since they have been uniformly treated by me with favor and attention.” (2nd letter)

Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “Biography of Hernan Cortes”, Oxford, UK. www.biographyonline.net. Published 26 June 2019.

Conquest: Montezuma, Cortes, and the Fall of Old Mexico

100 most influential people – A list of 100 most influential people as chosen by Michael H. Hart, from his book 100 most influential people in the world. Includes Muhammad, Jesus Christ, Lord Buddha, Confucius, St Paul and Johann Gutenberg.

Military figures – Famous military leaders and soldiers, including Alexander the Great, Napoleon, Ataturk, Erwin Rommel, Winston Churchill and Dwight Eisenhower.

Famous Spanish People. A list of famous Spanish people from the age of the Conquidistors to modern Spanish sports starts. Includes Hernando Cortes, Queen Isabella I, Pablo Picasso, Pablo Casals, Rafael Nadal and Penelope Cruz.


Biography of Hernán Cortés (1485-1547)

Famous conqueror of Mexico, born in Medellín (Extremadura) in 1485 and died in Castilleja de la Cuesta (near Seville) December 2, 1547. Vilified and glorified like no other Spanish conqueror, with the exception perhaps of Francisco Pizarro, he/she defeated the Aztec Confederation and was founder of the colonial Mexico.

The formation of a conqueror

Cortes was son of a few poor noblemen, the Martín Cortés Squire, said the father Las Casas, and Catalina Pizarro Altamirano, daughter of the Countess of Medellin, according to the chronicler Francisco López de Gomara. He/She was a sickly child who, on reaching fourteen was sent to Salamanca with his paternal aunt Inés de Paz, because his parents wanted to study law at the University. In this city lived for two years, during which he/she studied grammar and latin with Francisco Núñez de Valera, although it did not enter the University so, he/she returned to Medellín, with the consequent disgust of their parents.

Young hustle and friend of weapons, in 1501 he/she decided to embark on the expedition of Ovando to Indies, but prevented him the trauma he/she suffered after falling from a wall when it was about a married Lady. To recover is headed to Valencia to embark to Italy with the troops of the Great Captain, but also failed to do so. After wandering through the Spanish cities for a year, he/she returned to Medellín, and announced to her parents her desire to go to America. In 1504, with nineteen years, departed for the end for the long-awaited Indies.

Once in Santo Domingo, Cortés stayed some time in the capital. There he/she enlisted in the host of Diego Velázquez, which sojuzgó the indigenous rebellion of the cacica Anacaona. That was the only military action cortesiana before the conquest of the Aztec Confederation. At the end of the campaign, he/she was rewarded with a repartimiento of natives in Daiguao and the clerk of the city of Azua, city who helped found. He/She lived there five or six years of income which the entrusted indigenous paid dedicated to galantear different ladies.

In 1509 became the Spanish Governor Diego Columbus with a large retinue of marriageable Spanish, among them came Catalina Juárez, which had intimate relationships, and two years later joined the expedition of Diego Velázquez to conquer Cuba. Apparently, on that occasion it did not act as a soldier, but as Secretary or Treasurer of Velázquez. Cortés was involved then in a conspiracy of the conquistadors of Cuba against Velázquez, which they accused of fraud to the Royal Treasury. He/She had the opportunity to show then the Machiavellian political mood that leading him to fame and wealth. Juan Juárez, a companion of Cortes, came in moments from Santo Domingo, accompanied by her sisters and her mother, one of his sisters was Catalina Juárez, La Marcaida, which engaged in relations with courts Velazquez on the other hand, fell in love with another of the Sisters of Juan Juárez that got married. This was tapped by cuts to make a pact with Velázquez, whose friendship sealed with a family Alliance to marry Catalina Juárez, link in which Velazquez served as Godfather, and thus become his relative. This interested friendship earned him an encomienda of Indians in Manicarao and the possession of a herd cows, sheep and mares. With the passage of time, Cortés became a rich man and had a daughter with an Indian, who sponsored the Velázquez Governor.

In 1519, the Spanish prepared from Cuba the assault an empire located in the West, identifiable with the Aztecs. Velázquez then prepared an expedition to Yucatan, whose costa had just tour Fernández of Córdoba and Grijalba, and put his friend cuts in front of her. In theory, it was on the Mexican Coast exchanges with indigenous people and discover the secrets of the Earth. Despite modest plan, cuts raised a host of three hundred men, which departed abruptly from Santiago to avoid that Velázquez revoked the appointment, actually did shortly after starting. In Trinidad, joined other two hundred Spaniards, and later in Havana and Cape San Anton joined him some more.

The armed cortesiana left Cuba on February 10, 1519, with eleven ships, aboard which were about 109 sailors, 508 soldiers, 32 ballesteros, 13 escopeteros, 16 riders and 200 Indians of service, as well as some blacks. His artillery consisted of 10 guns of bronze and 4 harquebus. Arriving at the island of Cozumel, Cortés rescued the Spanish Jeronimo de Aguilar, who had been eight years in the Yucatan coast because of a shipwreck. Aguilar spoke maya, and was a valuable aid to understanding with the natives of that region. Navigation continued along the coast of Yucatan to the mouth of the Grijalva River, where they had a fight with natives of Tabasco, which killed two Spaniards and eight hundred Indians. Peace was negotiated through Aguilar, the delivery of food and 20 women, among which was the famous Doña Marina, which was to become lover and Adviser of cuts that obtained in Exchange for the cessation of hostilities. Marina, the Malinche, spoke nahuatl and the language of Tabasco or mayance, who was it who had learned Aguilar, which cuts secured communication with the natives.

The March to Tenochtitlan

The project of Hernán cuts wasn't the do bailouts and trade on the coast, so it went directly to San Juan de Ulúa There, contrary to the orders of Velázquez, landed and set up a real, or camp. Two days later came an Aztec Embassy with present (pieces of gold, fine clothes and ornaments), which confirmed the richness of the distant Empire, whose existence was confirmed at every step. Cuts invited your generous hosts to a mass sung by two priests at the end of which informed them that the Spaniards were Christian and subjects of the greatest Emperor of the world, les regao beads of glass, a Chair of hips and a hat and he/she asked for an interview with their monarch. The interview ended with an exhibition of horses running along the beach and numerous shots of artillery, which deeply impressed the natives.

The next week came another Aztec Embassy with more present (two large gold and silver wheels, grains of gold, fine cotton clothes, animals, etc.) and the response of its monarch, who refused to receive the Spaniards. Cortés stayed with gifts, sent others, and again insisted in the interview. A few days after arrived a third Embassy to notify courts that their King could not receive them and provoked them to take what they needed anes leave the country.

Aztec Riches decided to cut to end the pantomime of bailouts, becoming conqueror, and rebel against the Governor Velázquez. Promoted to this end a riot: its addicts asked him then to disobey orders to trade and he/she was forced to populate the Earth. Courts resorted to one of their classic ploys, since it stated to be surprised by the request and asked a night time to think if he/she accepted. The next day, imposed that name him captain general and justice and give you the fifth Royal of the loot obtained, after taken the fifth of the King. This institutional '' strike '' was consolidated between 5 and 19 July 1519 by the Foundation of a population, the Villa Rica de la Veracruz, who chose a Cabildo addicted to courts its first mayors were Portocarrero Hernández and Montejo. Since then, and until October 12, 1522, in which the Council of the Indies acquitted of the accusation of treason by the Governor Velázquez, Cortés was rebel and usurper of a title that was not him. As such rebel, he/she undertook the conquest of Mexico.

The strategy's approach to the Aztec Empire was very thoughtful, and reproduced some of the tactics employed in the Spanish reconquista. Cuts sought support of Cempoala, port and went to the village of Quiahuiztla, where tightened relations with the Totonacas, who offered to deliver them from the taxes that they paid to the Aztecs. After building up the population of Veracruz, he/she undid a plot of the velazquistas, accepted the offering of numerous women (with the condition that be baptised for them then spread as lovers to their captains), urged the Indians to abandon their gods and their homosexual practices and destroyed the images of gods found in a temple or near cu, where command a cross and say mass. Cuts ended this stage Spain sending attorneys with the fifth Royal Carlos V and his first letter of relationship over the territory. In a gesture of great symbolic importance, he/she also ordered destroy ships, so that no one could return to Cuba to inform of their rebellion. In addition, reinforced its host with a hundred sailors that manning them.

On August 16, 1519 Cortes and his host undertook the final conquest of the great Tenochtitlan they were four hundred infants, fifteen or sixteen riders, and thousand three hundred Indian totonac allies. Villa Rica were about hundred and fifty men, most of them sick or useless, under the orders of Escalante Gutiérrez. By Council of the totonac Spaniards is headed to Tlaxcala, a Confederacy of four Nahua peoples, traditional enemy of the Aztecs. Tlascalans refused offer of Alliance of cuts and defended heroically for several days, after which it decided to negotiate peace. Was then repeated delivery of indias Spaniards After 20 days in Tlaxcala, the host cortesiana, now accompanied by numerous warriors tlaxcaltecas, went to Cholula, Aztec Holy City, where a terrible killing occurred. According to the Conqueror, the Aztecs had laid him there a trap to prevent that you happened to Tenochtitlan. The trap was discovered by Doña Marina nearly three thousand natives were killed by Spaniards and Tlaxcalans allies on that occasion.

The March towards the Valley of Mexico from the host, passing through the towns of Amecameca, Chalco, Tlamanalco, Iztapalapa, was the next act of conquest. In Iztapalapa expected the Spaniards and their allies an Embassy consisting of Cuitláhuac and Cholloncan Kings, which led them to Tenochtitlan. There he/she received Motecuhzoma, which arose about litter, surrounded by gentlemen and all a ceremonial device around. Cortes and his soldiers were deeply impressed. It was on November 8, 1519.

The fabulous Aztec World

Moctezuma, who had the charge of Huey Tlatoani or Aztec Emperor led the newcomers to the Palace of Axayacatl, where they were housed. The Spaniards then visited the city, which impressed them greatly: it was a Lake City, linked to the Mainland by four walkways, with a huge population (between 150,000 and 300,000 inhabitants), which received drinking water from a large aqueduct. It had the low houses with roofs and a monumental of great temples, among which highlighted the greatest or great Cu, from where it departed walkways. The main temple was a large pyramid of fourteen hundred seats at the top were the shrines of the gods (of the war) Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc (of rain).

Relations with the Aztecs were good at the beginning, with mutual visits of Cortés and Motecuhzoma, but worsened as the purposes of permanence of the Spaniards were most apparent. Cortés then realized that his troop faced a very compromising situation, because it was locked in a Palace located in a huge city, which could only leave the roads going to the Mainland.It then took the decision to seize the person of the Tlatoani and hold it hostage, what justified with the argument that Motecuhzoma had been commanded to attack the Spaniards in Veracruz. Demonstrating a great recklessness, on 14 November arose in his palace accompanied by their captains and forced him to move to his as a prisoner. The Aztec monarch then received several embassies of his people who asked if they attacked the Spanish, but he/she committed the weakness of not giving such an order. He/She had to attend so unarmed to the burning of the subjects who had attacked the Spaniards in Villa Rica "obeying" his orders on that occasion, Cortés showed an unnecessary cruelty.

Since that time, the Conqueror felt strong, lost the prudence and undertook various actions, since he/she sent reform Veracruz, explore the territory in search of gold and find a good port. In addition, it took several Aztec Lords as so-called "conspirators" against the Spaniards and ordered Motecuhzoma to plead vassal of Carlos V, which sent the treasure of the Palace of Axayacatl and the loot obtained in Aztec cities. The chronicler Bernal Díaz stated that this booty was 600,000 pesos, apart from numerous jewels and gold ingots, but cuts priced it at only 162.000 After separating its part and the quinto real, it paid the expenses of the expedition and suffered losses and gave the rest. Each soldier received only one hundred pesos discontent among the troop was silenced by courts with deliveries of gold under the rope to protesting more.

Then came the news that had arrived in San Juan de Ulúa, a Spanish force of fourteen hundred men, eighty horsemen and ten or twelve guns sent by the Governor Velázquez from Cuba to the polite "rebel". Decided to then deal with his countrymen, aware of that could not withstand an attack of the newcomers and the Aztecs. After leaving Tenochtitlan in hundred and twenty men under the command of Pedro de Alvarado, he/she left with the remaining eighty to the coast, and received the velazquistas with promises of wealth. On 28 may, without the minor fight, cuts was hailed by all, and returned to Tenochtitlan in front of thousand three hundred soldiers, and ninety-six riders, eighty ballesteros and equal number of escopeteros and two thousand Tlaxcalans allies. Approaching to the Aztec capital, he/she went directly to the Palace of Axayacatl, where he/she found his encircled men in an act of enormous stupidity, Alvarado had rushed a massacre against the Aztecs in the party to Tezcatlipoca, who had enough to the natives, and decided them to put siege to the Spaniards. Cortés and his men were also caught in the same Palace, now openly attacking the Aztec warriors led by Cuauhtémoc, nephew of Motecuhzoma. To alleviate the situation, Cortés asked the Tlatoani prisoner who was directed to his people from the balcony of Palace and asked who would your attitude. The unfortunate Motecuhzoma knew then that he/she had been deposed, as the Council had instead appointed his cousin Cuitlahuac, Lord of Iztapalapa. The Aztecs threw stones to the Spaniards, and one of them gave Motecuhzoma, who died from their injuries, although another version indicates that he/she died of starvation by refusing to eat food.

The Spanish situation became unbearable and courts ordered the withdrawal of Tenochtitlan on June 30 of that year. It was the famous "Noche Triste". The Spaniards could not retire covered in darkness, and were discovered and attacked from the Lakes. They were so laden with booty that could barely defend themselves died about eight hundred soldiers and some five thousand Allied Indians. The vanguard escaped to a large extent, but almost all of the rearguard fell in Aztec hands. The withdrawal continued to Tlacopan, that night, took refuge in the temple and then to Otumba, where were able to redo against his pursuers. Finally, they were able to achieve their barracks in Tlaxcala.

The war of conquest

From the sad night, cuts carefully projected a war without quarter against the Aztec Confederation. After launching a campaign against Tepeaca, occupied Tepeyacac and founded Segura de la Frontera, which became a base of operations. From there, he/she managed to dominate the azteca Eastern region. The host was disciplined, were banned from the game and some malcontents were sent to Cuba. Finally, cuts reinforced its troop and sent a few brigs manufacture parts, which should allow the host move in the lacustrine environment of Tenochtitlan in Tlaxcala. On December 29, 1520 he/she left Tlaxcala to Texcoco with five hundred forty infants, forty Knights and a few ten thousand Tlaxcalans. Once in the Lakes, he/she ordered Assembly and discard the brigs and undertook an offensive to control its banks. Not all were wins, because it was on the verge of falling into the hands of the Aztecs twice and had to face an internal conspiracy, after which organized his own personal guard.

In May of 1520, the host cortesiana began the formal siege of Tenochtitlan the first thing was cutting drinking water from Chapultepec aqueduct and attack walkways that were going to the city. The situation of the besieged became desperate due to lack of water and by an epidemic of smallpox, a disease unknown to the Indians, who had brought from Cuba a black owned by the Navigator and conquistador Pánfilo de Narváez. Cuts employed scorched earth tactics at this stage and destroyed what was in their path. The Aztec resistance focused on Tlatelolco, where the Aztecs suffered equally Spanish barbarism and Tlaxcala. August 13, was the last offensive against the capital and many Indians fled in canoes. The captain García Holguín, who was aboard one of the brigs, captured the canoe that was fleeing the Tlatoani Cuauhtémoc, was taken prisoner in the presence of cuts. It was the end of the Aztec resistance. Tenochtitlan had withstood 85 days of siege, during which, as Bernal Díaz "not be found generation in the world that both suffered hunger and thirst and continuous wars, like this".

The Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca

Once accomplished the conquest, Hernán courts undertook the reconstruction of the Aztec capital into the Kingdom of the new Spain. It followed the uses of the Peninsula, with a ceremonial center in the plaza mayor, which contained the buildings of the Government, the Town Hall and the Cathedral. Despite the torment he/she underwent Cuauhtemoc and Lord of Tacuba so they confesasen where they had hidden treasures, the accomplished loot added 380,000 pesos, a relatively low amount. After the payment of fifths and expenses, they played one hundred pesos to horse and fifty to sixty infants everyone was unhappy, but Mexico had entered a new era.

The personal path of cuts since then met several variants. In the summer of 1522, Catalina Juárez appeared in the Palace of Coyoacán, which was the residence of the Conqueror three months later he/she died in strange circumstances. At the end of that same year came the title of Governor and captain general and justice of the new Spain, issued by Carlos V on October 15, as a reward for his exploits. However, the Crown, decided to avoid in America that his authority was discussed, surrounded himself you with a coterie of officials and prevented entrusted Indians or impose them tributes. In those years, it also appears the Cortes colonizer, who embarks on a campaign to bring missionaries and import plants and cattle, and supports the exploration of the territory by sending his captains to Tehuantepec, Guatemala and El Salvador (Alvarado), Panuco (Sandoval), Honduras (solid), Jalisco and Nayarit (Francisco Cortes) and tries to discover the South Sea with a few brigs built in Zihuatanejo.

October 12, 1524, he/she embarked on his expedition to Honduras or the Hibueras, as I said then, to Olid, who had rebelled against him, following the same example, or perhaps to discover an interoceanic Strait posed was in that region. It was an expedition overland, with numerous Cavalry, Indians and some Aztec Lords, among them Cuauhtémoc. After passing through Orizaba, they followed the coast and wetlands, where deprivation and diseases decimated the troop entered. Before reaching Izancanac, cuts believed to have evidence that Cuauhtemoc had communicated with each other to promote an uprising in Mexico. After submitting to torment the ringleaders, ordered several of them, including Cuauhtemoc was hanged. The alleged plot of the Aztec leader seems to have been a result of the fear of cuts. The expedition continued until the men of González Dávila, who knew that Olid had been killed. Afterwards, Cortés explored the golfo Dulce, founded Puerto Caballos and return by sea to Mexico, where he/she learned that the official Royal had stripped him of the Government. It was January 24, 1526.

We then enter the years of litigation in courts, arriving until his death in Spain. Luis Ponce de León coroner opened trial of residence, but because of his death judgment passed into the hands of the Marcos Aguilar'slawyer, who also died unexpectedly. The new judge, Treasurer Estrada, banished to cuts in the capital and began to pick up accusations against. The Conqueror decided to travel to Spain to defend himself. On March 17, 1528 he/she returned to the peninsula with his captains Sandoval and Tapia, many colleagues, a good sum of gold ingots and a spectacular accompaniment composed of four native who did wonders with the feet, exotic birds, two Jaguars, etc. Landing in Palos de la Frontera took place on April 18. Cortés had missed their homeland 23 years He/She was 43 and rico. After writing to the Emperor and his friends, he/she went to Guadalupe to pray and pass galantear to Francisca de Mendoza, although it was already promised to Doña Juana de Zúñiga, niece of the Duke of Béjar.

Carlos V received cuts in Toledo in the autumn of 1528. The Emperor listened to their stories and awarded its services with the title of Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca, the first given to an Indian. Although their appointments have ratified you, was not given by Governor of Mexico, fearing that had noble temptations. Despite its title and his marriage with Doña Juana de Zúñiga, Cortés was not accepted by the old Castilian nobility, who saw him as an upstart and criticized his ostentation. Tired of life in Castile, in the spring of 1530 Cortés set sail heading to Mexico. Two months was arrested in Santo Domingo, after which arrived at Veracruz.

When he/she arrived in the capital, the audience received him hostile and forbade him to reside in it. At the end of that year was held the second hearing, presided over by Ramírez de Fuenleal, who relaxed tensions, but then dismissed their claims. Cortés wanted to have 23,000 neighbors as vassals, while the audience insisted that the Crown had made him Lord of 23,000 people (residents multiplied by four the number of people). Because of dissensions cuts he/she locked himself in his palace of Cuernavaca, where organized his lordship and was devoted to Acclimate agricultural species.

His last dream of conqueror was to find another "New Spain" in the Pacific Ocean, which ordered the construction of six brigs in Acapulco and Tehuantepec. The first came out in 1532 with his cousin Diego Hurtado de Mendoza at the helm, but not passed the Banderas Bay, to the Northwest of Mexico. The second left Santiago in 1533 with two ships sent by Becerra and by Hernando Grijalva. Becerra ship went to California, from where he/she returned to Jalisco. The Grijalva discovered the Revillagigedo archipelago and returned to Acapulco. A third expedition in 1535 with three ships headed to California with the aim of establishing a formal colonization there. Cortes was in command of the enterprise when it received the order to return to Mexico to meet with the new viceroy of new Spain the Spanish colony founded by Cortés then became the first Viceroyalty of America.

Relations between the viceroy Mendoza y Cortes were cordial at first, but worsened when Mendoza interfered in their exploration plans. Cortés decided to go to Spain to claim, and left accompanied by his sons Luis and MartínVeracruz. He/She found very little receptivity to their demands, and perhaps in an attempt to achieve the favor of Emperor joined the famous expedition of Algiers in 1541, which was a personal disaster, since he/she lost a part of his fortune and suffered the scorn of Carlos V. Following the withdrawal of Algiers, Cortés returned to their lawsuits, but exhausted by the passage of the years decided to return to Mexico. The trip to Seville, where thought to embark, he/she did so with great difficulty and finally died in Castilleja de la Cuesta. The Conqueror of Mexico was 62 years old had lived long enough to see both the creation of the Indian Empire and the postponement of the men, who had been lighting it.

Bibliogrāfija

Avoti

ARTEAGA GARZA and GUADALUPE PEREZ SAN VICENTE, Beatriz (ed.). Cedulario cortesiano. (Mexico: Jus, 1949)CORTÉS, H. relationship charts, (Edition of Angel Delgado Gómez), (Madrid: Editorial Castalia, 1993).GAYANGOS, Pascual de (ed.). Letters and relations of Hernán Cortés to Emperor Carlos V. (Paris: A. Chaix, 1866). Cortés, letters and documents. (Mexico: Porrúa, 1963).SOLANO ROMERO, Luis. Expedition to the Moluccas-1527 cortesiana. (Mexico: Jus, 1950).


Skatīties video: Hernan Cortes: Conquered the Aztec Empire - Fast Facts. History (Maijs 2022).